Department of Defense Report to Congress: Annual Freedom of Navigation Report, Fiscal Year 2019 [open pdf - 320KB]
From the Document: "International law as reflected in the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention provides to all nations certain rights and freedoms. Rights to engage in traditional uses of the sea are deliberately balanced against coastal states' control over maritime activities. As a nation with both a vast coastline and a significant maritime presence, the United States is committed to preserving this legal balance. Unlawful and sweeping maritime claims that are inconsistent with customary international law as reflected in the Law of the Sea Convention pose a threat to the legal foundation of the rules-based international order. Consequently, the United States is committed to confronting this threat by challenging excessive maritime claims. [...] Although the national interest in freedom of navigation dates back to the very founding of our country, in 2019, the United States marked forty years of demonstrating its resistance to excessive maritime claims through a formal U.S. Freedom of Navigation (FON) Program. [...] Every year, DoD releases an unclassified report identifying the coastal states and excessive maritime claims that U.S. forces operationally challenged over the last fiscal year. Below is a summary of excessive maritime claims DoD challenged during the period of October 1, 2018, through September 30, 2019, to preserve the rights, freedoms, and uses of the sea and airspace guaranteed to all nations by international law."
Department of Defense, 7-C40800E
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy: https://policy.defense.gov/