From the Document: "Illegal trade in arts and antiquities, also referred to as trafficking of arts and antiquities or cultural property, is a long-standing practice through which criminal actors profit from the destruction, looting, or theft of culturally significant items. Estimates of the financial value of this illegal trade range from several hundred million to billions of dollars annually. Certain characteristics of the arts and antiquities industries - such as confidentiality, challenges in documenting the provenance (ownership history) of certain items, the use of intermediaries, and inconsistent due diligence practices - may contribute to the illegal trade and enable traffickers to gain access to the U.S. financial system. Congress has sought to strengthen U.S. responses to arts and antiquities trafficking through means including ratifying international agreements, directing executive branch initiatives, and regulating relevant industries."
CRS In Focus, IF11776
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/