From the Summary: "Congress may examine wide-ranging air pollution issues as it deliberates legislation and conducts oversight of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Oversight of EPA's air pollution work has historically received significant attention in Congress. Such oversight has often examined whether EPA's programs meet the statutory objective to protect human health and the environment from air pollution, how evolving scientific understanding informs Clean Air Act (CAA) decisionmaking, and the degree to which potential tradeoffs exist between public health benefits and compliance costs. Some Members of Congress have also raised concerns about potential disproportionate impacts on communities located near sources of emissions, and related concerns about whether CAA standards are protective of vulnerable individuals (e.g., children, pregnant women, the elderly, and persons with preexisting health conditions). Congress may also consider legislation to address air pollution issues and EPA's CAA authority. Recent Administrations have interpreted CAA authority in different, and sometimes conflicting, ways. Historically, many of EPA's CAA regulations have been challenged in court, both by industry and by public health and environmental groups, with various states supporting each side. Some prominent air topics of potential interest in the 117th Congress are air quality standards, wildfire smoke, hazardous air pollutant standards, and permits. Related issues, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or other climate change topics relevant to the CAA, are not addressed herein."
CRS Report for Congress, R46684
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/