From the thesis Abstract: "Special weapon and tactics (SWAT) teams and public safety bomb squads (PSBSs) need to better collaborate to effectively and efficiently respond to the joint hazards that the United States faces. After-action reports, as in the case of the 1999 Columbine High School attack in Littleton, Colorado, and the 2016 Pulse nightclub massacre in Orlando, Florida, highlight the need for PSBS to address integration and better collaboration with SWAT teams before an actual critical incident. Such collaboration between SWAT and PSBS might seem easy in theory, but challenges exist. Evaluating those challenges through the lens of trust, this thesis finds that cultivating trust between the two different disciplines requires socialization and frequent joint hazard training. Such barriers as independence of training and frequency of common missions, unit organization, and culture can inhibit SWAT and PSBS from collaborating, developing trust, and discovering collective weaknesses before a critical incident occurs. The ultimate goal, in practical terms, is the formation of cross-functional teams (CFTs). This thesis concludes by giving specific examples of boundary-spanning activities for SWAT and PSBS to foster the CFT approach, so that a better collaborative effort can emerge, thereby encouraging trust between SWAT and PSBS that will be beneficial in a critical joint hazard incident."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: https://calhoun.nps.edu/