Russia's Nord Stream 2 Pipeline: Continued Uncertainty [Updated February 8, 2021] [open pdf - 744KB]
From the Document: "Uncertainty continues to cloud the future of Nord Stream 2, an unfinished natural gas pipeline that would increase the amount of Russian natural gas exported directly to Germany and on to other European countries, bypassing Ukraine and other transit states. Successive U.S. Administrations and Congresses have opposed Nord Stream 2, reflecting concerns about European dependence on Russian energy and the threat Russia poses to Ukraine. In January 2021, the Trump Administration imposed congressionally authorized sanctions on the Russian vessel 'Fortuna' and its owner for supporting Nord Stream 2's construction. The Biden Administration has expressed opposition to the pipeline and has stated it intends to review existing sanctions in consultation with European partners. Nord Stream 2 construction was initially suspended in December 2019, after the passage of U.S. legislation establishing sanctions related to the pipeline. At the time, fewer than 100 miles of the approximately 760-mile long pipeline system (consisting of two parallel lines) remained to be laid. Construction of a small section resumed in December 2020. Although the United States has imposed sanctions on the 'Fortuna', reports indicate that the vessel is continuing its work on the pipeline. The German government continues to support Nord Stream 2. German and EU officials, including some opponents of the pipeline, have condemned U.S. sanctions as an infringement on national sovereignty that could have negative repercussions for broader transatlantic cooperation."
CRS In Focus, IF11138
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/