Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2021 [Updated February 8, 2021] [open pdf - 824KB]
From the Introduction: "Article I, Section 9, of the U.S. Constitution provides, 'No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law.' The Constitution does not, however, prescribe any specific structure or process for making appropriations. The committee structure established by Congress during the 20th century assigns a prominent role to the Appropriations Committees of the House and Senate for both the development of appropriations legislation and oversight over budget execution. The Appropriations Committees, in turn, have created a system of subcommittees designed to facilitate their ability to carry out these tasks. House Rule X, clause 5(b)(2)(B), limits the House Appropriations Committee to no more than 13 subcommittees, but the organization of appropriations subcommittees is determined by the committee. This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees' subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present."
CRS Report for Congress, RL31572
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/