Dispute Settlement in the WTO and U.S. Trade Agreements [Updated February 1, 2021] [open pdf - 459KB]
From the Document: "The United States traditionally has championed the use of effective and reciprocal dispute settlement (DS) mechanisms to enforce commitments in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs). While effective and enforceable DS has been a long-standing U.S. trade negotiating objective, its use has become controversial following some adverse decisions, particularly with regard to U.S. trade remedy law. The WTO was established in 1995 after eight years of trade negotiations in the Uruguay Round among members of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)--the predecessor to the WTO during 1947-1994. The WTO administers a system of agreements promoting trade liberalization, including rules for trade in goods, services and intellectual property rights. Through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), the WTO provides an enforceable means to settle disputes regarding obligations under these agreements. [...] Congress may seek to address the new DS mechanisms under USMCA [United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement] and the demise or potential reform of the AB [Appellate Body] in its oversight of U.S. trade policy or in a possible future debate on Trade Promotion Authority."
CRS In Focus, IF10645
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/