From the Abstract: "A pandemic is defined as an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people. Pandemics have occurred throughout human history and appear to be increasing because of rising emergence of viral diseases from animals (zoonoses). The risk of a pandemic arises from the combined effects of the Spark Risk (e.g. bushmeat hunting) and the Spread Risk (e.g. mode of transmission and population susceptibility). Pandemics have health, economic, gender, social and political impacts. Building pandemic preparedness is complex and requires considerable coordination. In the context of COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] modelling of transmission has been central to many government's response including introduction of lockdown and physical distancing. Developing vaccines for novel pathogens is not simple or straightforward and community mitigation measures are essential. There are a number of lessons which have been learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic including acting quickly, extensive testing, digital surveillance, public trust in government and leaders and cooperation between nations."
Nautilus Institute; Nagasaki Daigaku. Research Center for Nuclear Weapons Abolition; Asia Pacific Leadership Network for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
Nautilus Institute: https://www.nautilus.org/
Pandemics. Working Paper presented to The 75th Anniversary Nagasaki Nuclear-Pandemic Nexus Scenario Project. October 31-November 1, and November 14-15, 2020