From the Overview: "Congress has authorized the President to control the export of various items for national security, foreign policy, and economic reasons. Separate programs and statutes exist for controlling different types of exports, including nuclear materials and technology, defense articles and services, and dual-use items and technology--items that have both civilian and military uses. Under each program, U.S. government review and licenses of various types are required before export. The Departments of Commerce, State, and Energy administer these programs, in cooperation with input from other relevant agencies. At the same time, Congress also legislates country-specific sanctions that restrict aid, trade, and other transactions to address U.S. policy concerns about weapons proliferation, regional stability, and human rights, some of which are administered by the Department of the Treasury."
CRS In Focus, IF11154
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/