From the Document: "Economic sanctions in furtherance of foreign policy and national security objectives are coercive economic measures taken against a target to bring about a change in behavior. In U.S. foreign policy and national security, sanctions can include such measures as trade embargoes; restrictions on particular exports or imports; denial of foreign assistance, loans, and investments; blocking of foreign assets under U.S. jurisdiction; and prohibition on economic transactions that involve U.S. citizens or businesses. Secondary sanctions are sometimes used to put additional pressure on the sanctions target. They penalize third parties engaged in activities with the primary sanctions target that undermine or evade the purpose of the sanctions regime."
CRS In Focus, IF11730
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/