From the Overview: "On October 7, 2019, after six months of formal negotiations, the United States and Japan signed two agreements to liberalize bilateral trade. The U.S.-Japan Trade Agreement (USJTA) provides for limited tariff reductions and quota expansions to improve market access. The U.S.-Japan Digital Trade Agreement covers rules on digital aspects of international commerce. The agreements, which took effect on January 1, 2020, without formal action by Congress, constitute what the Trump and Abe Administrations described as 'stage one' of a broader U.S.- Japan trade agreement, but further talks have yet to materialize. The Trump Administration used delegated tariff authorities in Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) to proclaim the USJTA provisions, while the digital trade agreement, which did not require changes to U.S. law, was treated as an Executive Agreement. The status of the pending second stage bilateral talks remains of interest to Congress but is uncertain under both Japan's new Suga Administration and the incoming Biden Administration. As the fourth-largest U.S. trade partner, Japan has been a high priority for U.S. trade negotiations, especially as recent Japanese free trade agreements (FTAs), including with the European Union (EU) and the TPP-11 (successor to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) following U.S. withdrawal), lower Japan's tariffs on imports from several countries, placing U.S. exporters at a disadvantage."
CRS In Focus, IF11120
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/