Lawsuits Against the Federal Government: Basic Federal Court Procedure and Timelines [Updated December 22, 2020] [open pdf - 458KB]
From the Document: "Many federal laws and policy initiatives are challenged in court. In recent years, for instance, plaintiffs have brought cases challenging the Department of Homeland Security's rescission of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, the Secretary of Commerce's decision to include a citizenship question on the 2020 Census, and the President's decision to expend certain funds to construct a 'border wall.' Because the defendant in these cases is the United States or an executive official, the cases generally proceed in federal court. By understanding the procedures governing federal court litigation, legislators can consider potential outcomes, estimate timelines, and appreciate the importance of a court's ruling at a particular stage. This In Focus reviews the most common procedures that govern civil suits against the federal government, tracing the path from federal district court to the Supreme Court."
CRS In Focus, IF11349
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/