Drinking Water: EPA Could Use Available Data to Better Identify Neighborhoods at Risk of Lead Exposure, Report to Congressional Requesters [open pdf - 5MB]
From the GAO (Government Accountability Office) Highlights: "Lead in drinking water comes primarily from corrosion of service lines connecting the water main to a house or building, pipes inside a building, or plumbing fixtures. As GAO reported in September 2018, the total number of lead service lines in drinking water systems is unknown, and less than 20 of the 100 largest water systems have such data publicly available. GAO was asked to examine the actions EPA and water systems are taking to educate the public on the risks of lead in drinking water. This report examines, among other things: (1) the extent to which neighborhood data on cities served by lead service lines can be used to focus lead reduction efforts; and (2) actions EPA has taken to address WIIN [Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation] Act requirements, and EPA's risk communication documents. GAO conducted a statistical analysis combining geospatial lead service line and ACS [U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey] data to identify characteristics of selected communities; reviewed legal requirements and EPA documents; and interviewed EPA officials."
Government Accountability Office: https://www.gao.gov/