Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Characteristics and Examples of Use [November 16, 2020] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "Congress uses a bill or joint resolution to propose a law. A joint resolution is also used to propose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. These legislative measures must be passed by both houses in identical form. Bills and joint resolutions not proposing a constitutional amendment are then presented to the President for approval or disapproval. To regulate its own internal affairs, or for other purposes where authority of law is not necessary, Congress uses a concurrent resolution (requiring adoption by both houses) or a simple resolution (requiring action only in the house of origin). The Senate also considers nominations and treaties. This 'executive business' is so called because it is transmitted by the President, who must obtain the advice and consent of the Senate before the nomination or treaty becomes effective."
CRS Report for Congress, R46603
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/