Prepare to Fight: Is the National Active-Shooter Response Model Due for an Upgrade? [open pdf - 717KB]
From the Thesis Abstract: "Documenting and analyzing the lessons learned from emergencies are essential to improve the training designed to save lives. The goal of this thesis was to examine actual active-shooter events, training models for the response to active shooters, and emergency drills to determine whether the current training model of Run, Hide, Fight is sufficient or needs revision. This study of historical emergency training examined human responses to frightening situations, analyzed past active-shooter events, evaluated the tactics and strategies of shooters, and measured the effectiveness of the current training. The study found that active-shooter training may be more effective if instructions highlight the importance of constant situational assessment with an emphasis on the fluidity of the incident. Response decisions should change as the event evolves and dictates an appropriate response. Moreover, the evolution of decisions made during the event may increase the survivability rate. The Run, Hide, Fight model is effective, but increasing the importance of constant situational awareness and adaptive decision-making within the training program is recommended. The delivery of active-shooter training should focus less on linear progression--first run, next hide, and then fight--and more on what the situation dictates to be the best response."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: https://calhoun.nps.edu/