From the Introduction: "U.S. policymakers used to view international corruption largely as an issue relating to economic development. However, in recent years, they have come to recognize that it in fact affects a much wider set of U.S. interests. The United States' main geopolitical competitors are deploying corruption as a hybrid weapon: China seeks to win influence in Africa and other parts of the world dealing with weak governance, and Russia aims to undermine its neighbors' sovereignty. Globally, corruption-riddled governance drives migration and drug trafficking, while hindering the ability of border officials to enforce the law. Violent extremists exploit grievances around corruption to fuel recruitment and enable operations, while counterterrorism units are undermined by self-dealing. Corruption also slows progress on climate change: regulations can be bypassed through bribery, and massive energy projects are vulnerable to leakage."
2020 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: https://carnegieendowment.org/