Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief [Updated August 25, 2020] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "From January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2018, most individuals had to maintain health insurance coverage or pay a penalty for noncompliance implemented through the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). To comply with the individual mandate, individuals needed to maintain minimum essential coverage, which includes most types of public and private health insurance coverage, though some individuals were exempt from the mandate. [...] This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate as they operate according to law and as they operate in practice with the effective elimination of the penalty. It discusses the ACA [Affordable Care Act] reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes the most recent national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty for tax year (TY) 2014 through TY2017. The information provided in this report is based on current law and corresponding regulations and guidance."
CRS Report for Congress, R44438
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/