From the Document: "United States European Command (or EUCOM, pronounced 'YEW-com') is headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany, and was established in 1952. Today its area of responsibility comprises 51 countries stretching from Portugal's Azores Islands to Iceland and Israel. USEUCOM's commander is currently U.S. Air Force General Tod Wolters, who is simultaneously the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR). During the Cold War, the European theater was a primary focus for U.S. defense and national security and EUCOM was focused almost exclusively on deterring, and if necessary defeating, the Soviet Union. At the height of the Cold War, there were more than 400,000 U.S. troops stationed in Europe. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to a withdrawal of the bulk of forward-deployed U.S. troops in the European theater. Decisions to do so were arguably based on a number of strategic assumptions held by successive administrations after the end of the Cold War, including that Europe could be stable, whole, and free; Russia could be a constructive partner in the Euro-Atlantic security architecture; and particularly prior to September 11, 2001, threats posed by terrorism and migration from the Middle East/North Africa region were limited."
CRS In Focus, IF11130
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/