From the Document: "For decades, data privacy and protection issues have been sticking points in U.S. relations with the European Union (EU), in part because of different data privacy approaches and legal regimes. To bridge differences and enable data transfers, the United States and the EU have concluded data-sharing accords in both the commercial and law enforcement sectors. However, unauthorized disclosures in 2013 of U.S. surveillance programs and the alleged involvement of some U.S. telecommunications and internet companies heightened EU concerns about U.S. government access to EU citizens' personal data, with ramifications for U.S.-EU data transfer arrangements. Resulting trade tensions have impacted U.S. and EU businesses, elevating congressional concerns that the EU approach to data protection creates unfair trade barriers and limits U.S. firms' access to the EU market. EU Court Invalidates Privacy."
CRS In Focus, IF11613
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/