From the Overview: "A long-running dispute between Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan over the waters of the Nile flared in 2020, as Ethiopia moves toward completion of Africa's largest hydroelectric power project, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). The domestic stakes are high for both Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who seeks to guide Ethiopia through a fragile political transition, and Egypt's President Abdel Fattah al Sisi, who seeks to preserve Egypt's share of the Nile amidst population growth, pollution, and rising sea levels. Efforts to resolve the conflict, including by the United States, have yet to result in a final agreement. Alongside the potential for the dispute to escalate, failure to reach an accord could set a negative precedent for transboundary water cooperation at a time of growing global concern over climate change, demographic growth, and resource scarcity."
CRS Insight, IN11471
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/