From the Introduction: "The term 'infrastructure' generally refers to long-lived, capital-intensive systems and facilities in the areas of transportation, energy, water, and telecommunications. Some broader definitions also include facilities for education, recreation, and health.Although the condition and performance of these systems are generally thought to be important for the nation's well-being, there is less agreement on the optimal level of infrastructure investment, how to maximize the effectiveness of spending, and the appropriate role of the federal government. State and local governments and the private sector provide the bulk of infrastructure investment. The federal role in infrastructure investment is important but limited in size and scope. For example, the federal government was responsible for 26% of total government highway outlays in 2017. The federal government supports infrastructure investment in four ways: (1) direct investment in federally owned infrastructure; (2) grants to nonfederal entities, especially state and local governments; (3) tax preferences that forgo federal revenue to provide incentives for nonfederal investment in infrastructure; and (4) loans and other types of credit assistance to nonfederal entities."
CRS In Focus, IF11608
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/