From the Introduction: "As the COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] pandemic evolved as a global health, humanitarian and economic crisis, the United Nations (UN) has been the leading global institution guiding a response. This is not only because it is the global body for international cooperation, but because traditional leadership and constellations of cooperation among governments were faltering as states turned inward to address the crisis domestically. Prior to the COVID-19 crisis, the international community was already experiencing stressors to international cooperation in the form of resurgent nationalism, populism and the rise of autocratic leaders. Every-country-for-itself style diplomacy was applying pressure to long-standing alliances, such as NATO and the European Union. As global leaders continued to test the boundaries of decoupling, COVID-19 enabled a rapid escalation: borders were shut, flights stopped, and governments unilaterally demanded businesses to close and commanded their populations to remain indoors."
2020 Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime
Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime: https://globalinitiative.net/