From the Introduction: "Elections usually involve large, nationwide gatherings, not only on Election Day but also, for example, during campaign rallies and voter registration drives. These events increase human-to-human contact and the risks of direct and indirect disease transmission. Few election management bodies (EMBs) have comprehensive plans in place to manage these activities amid widespread disease outbreaks, leading to insufficient time, resources and information to make necessary adjustments and hold election events safely when public health crises suddenly materialize. This has proven to be the case with COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019], the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, which has, to this date, forced the postponement of national and subnational elections in nearly 60 countries and territories. Several EMBs that did decide to move forward with elections amid the crisis largely failed to address public concerns about health, leading to low voter turnouts, credibility issues, poll worker dropouts and even the infection of some electoral officials."
2020 International Foundation for Electoral Systems
International Foundation for Electoral Systems: https://www.ifes.org/