From the Document: "The safe zones in the northern part of Syria have been established following three operations in the region, namely: the Euphrates Shield in 2016, the Olive Branch in 2018, and the Peace Spring in 2019. Before the outbreak of pandemic, the healthcare capacity was semi-sufficient with urgent cases being treated in Turkey and with frequent hospital transfers being conducted. In terms of livelihood opportunities, humanitarian aid was predominantly channelled through Turkey with limited involvement of Western and international organisations. Trade with the outside world was limited due to the sanctions imposed on Syria. The infrastructural investment in the region was predominantly made by the Turkish state and NGOs [non-governmental organization] in the form of renovations and building of schools, hospitals, as well as water and energy supply. As of May 28th, 2020, there are no confirmed cases of COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] in both regions yet living conditions have deteriorated due to the conditions in Turkey, Syria and rest of the world."
Syria Transition Challenges Project Discussion Paper No. 10
Geneva Centre for Security Policy
Geneva Centre for Security Policy: https://www.gcsp.ch/