From the Document: "High volumes of passenger air travel increase the risk of infectious disease epidemics and pandemics. Regional preparedness planning for large-scale outbreaks requires models that are able to capture outbreak dynamics within a control policy evaluation framework. Previous studies focused on either modeling outbreak dynamics or optimizing outbreak control decisions; this paper proposes an integrated approach that combines both aspects. A multiscale epidemic outbreak model is introduced that is designed to capture the infection dynamics at both the local (city) scale and the global (air travel) scale. A bilevel decision-making framework is then proposed to identify the optimal set of outbreak control policies, while accounting for local and global outbreak dynamics. The model is implemented for a case study in which a hypothetical epidemic outbreak is assumed to emerge from within the United States, and different control resource allocation strategies are explored and evaluated. The results highlight the importance of accounting for outbreak dynamics within the decision-making process and provide insight into the design and efficiency of a range of control strategies. This research is an initial effort to be followed by further research on the design of outbreak control strategies by using optimization algorithms under this framework."
Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
SAGE Journals: https://journals.sagepub.com/
Transportation Research Record (2017) no.2626, pp.42-50