From the Document: "The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several programs to help farmers recover financially from natural disasters, including drought and floods. All the programs have permanent authorization, and one requires a federal disaster designation (the emergency loan program). Most programs receive mandatory funding amounts that are 'such sums as necessary' and are not subject to annual discretionary appropriations. The federal crop insurance program offers subsidized policies designed to protect crop producers from risks associated with adverse weather, as well as weather-related plant diseases and insect infestations and declines in commodity prices. Policies must be purchased prior to the planting season. Eligible commodities include most major crops and many specialty crops (including fruit, tree nut, vegetable, and nursery crops), as well as forage and pastureland for livestock producers. Producers who grow a crop that is currently ineligible for the federal crop insurance program may apply for the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). NAP provides a basic level of coverage (when loss exceeds 50% of expected production) as well as options to purchase additional coverage. Similar to crop insurance, policies must be purchased prior to the planting season."
CRS Report for Congress, RS21212
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/