From the Background: "Federal law provides that all aliens attempting to enter the United States must do so pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). [...] The executive branch has discretion to grant temporary reprieves from removal to aliens present in the United States in violation of the INA. Temporary Protected Status (TPS), codified in INA Section 244, provides temporary relief from removal and work authorization to foreign nationals--regardless of their immigration status--in the United States from countries experiencing armed conflict, natural disaster, or other extraordinary circumstances that prevent their safe return. This report begins by situating TPS in the context of humanitarian responses to migration. Another form of blanket relief from removal--Deferred Enforced Departure (DED)-- is also described, as is the historical use of these relief mechanisms. This report then provides data on the countries currently designated for TPS, including the conditions that have contributed to their designation. Past legislation to provide lawful permanent resident (LPR) status to certain TPS-designated foreign nationals is also described. The report concludes with a discussion of legislative activity in the 116th Congress related to TPS."
CRS Report for Congress, RS20844
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/