Border Interoperability Demonstration Project: Study on Implementing Interoperability Channels Along and Across the United States-Canadian Border [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "Public safety agencies serving communities along the U.S.-Canadian border face unique challenges ensuring fully interoperable communications in support of their missions. For instance, agencies seeking to license radio spectrum along the border must consider regulatory policies and special restrictions that apply due to proximity to the border. These agencies must operate within terms of agreements between the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and its international counterpart in Canada--the Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED), formerly Industry Canada. The FCC and ISED negotiate agreements on the sharing of radio spectrum along the border in order to ensure that radio users from one country do not interfere with radio users in the other country. The agreements typically apply to any licensee operating along the border within an international coordination zone, which varies in distance from the border depending on the frequency band. Any public safety radio system constructed within an international coordination zone must also comply with technical restrictions, which are designed to prevent its radio signal from broadcasting into the other country and causing interference. Because both countries share the same radio spectrum, there are conflicts in channel assignment in certain radio bands."
U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency: https://www.cisa.gov/