Immigration: 'Recalcitrant' Countries and the Use of Visa Sanctions to Encourage Cooperation with Alien Removals [Updated January 23, 2020] [open pdf - 696KB]
From the Document: "The ability to repatriate foreign nationals (aliens) who violate U.S. immigration law is central to the immigration enforcement system. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provides broad authority to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) to remove certain foreign nationals from the United States. Any foreign national found to be inadmissible or deportable under the grounds specified in the INA may be ordered removed. Those ordered removed may include unauthorized aliens (i.e., foreign nationals who enter without inspection, enter with fraudulent documents, or enter legally but overstay their temporary visas). Lawfully present foreign nationals who commit crimes or certain other acts may also be subject to removal. To effectuate a removal, the alien's country of citizenship must confirm the alien's nationality, issue travel documents, and accept his or her physical return by commercial flight or, where necessary, charter flight."
CRS In Focus, IF11025
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/