Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress [Updated January 23, 2020] [open pdf - 2MB]
From the Summary: "The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region's future. The United States, by virtue of Alaska, is an Arctic country and has substantial interests in the region. The seven other Arctic states are Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark (by virtue of Greenland), and Russia. The Arctic Research and Policy Act (ARPA) of 1984 (Title I of P.L. 98-373 of July 31, 1984) 'provide[s] for a comprehensive national policy dealing with national research needs and objectives in the Arctic.' The National Science Foundation (NSF) is the lead federal agency for implementing Arctic research policy. Key U.S. policy documents relating to the Arctic include National Security Presidential Directive 66/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 25 (NSPD 66/HSPD 25) of January 9, 2009; the 'National Strategy for the Arctic Region' of May 10, 2013; the January 30, 2014, implementation plan for the 2013 national strategy; and Executive Order 13689 of January 21, 2015, on enhancing coordination of national efforts in the Arctic. The office of the U.S. Special Representative for the Arctic has been vacant since January 20, 2017."
CRS Report for Congress, R41153
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/