Statement of Alexis Arieff, Specialist in African Affairs, Before Committee on Oversight and Reform, Subcommittee on National Security, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing on 'U.S. Counterterrorism Priorities and Challenges in Africa', December 16, 2019 [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Introduction: "Islamist armed groups have proliferated and expanded their geographic presence in sub-Saharan Africa ('Africa,' unless noted) over the past decade. These groups employ terrorist tactics, and several have pledged allegiance to Al Qaeda or the Islamic State (IS, aka ISIS or ISIL) and operate across borders. Most, however, also operate as local insurgent movements that seek to attack and undermine state presence and control. Conflicts involving these groups have caused the displacement of millions of people in Africa and deepened existing development and security challenges. Local civilians and security forces have endured the overwhelming brunt of fatalities, as well as the devastating humanitarian impacts. Somalia, the Lake Chad Basin, and West Africa's Sahel region have been most affected (Figure 1). The Islamic State also has claimed attacks as far afield as eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and northern Mozambique over the past year."
CRS Testimony for Congress, TE10044
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/