Enforcing International Trade Obligations in USMCA: The State-State Dispute Settlement Mechanism [January 3, 2020] [open pdf - 393KB]
From the Document: "Enforcement of many obligations in the proposed United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which would replace the existing North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) if ratified, is covered by the dispute settlement mechanism in USMCA's Chapter 31. This mechanism would permit any of the three Parties who intend to join the Agreement (i.e., the United States, Mexico, and Canada) to bring a claim against another Party that is allegedly violating its USMCA obligations. Chapter 31, which draws substantially on NAFTA's Chapter 20 mechanism, applies to a majority of the Parties' USMCA obligations, but there are exceptions. For instance, article 32.12 exempts certain investment decisions reviewed under the 'Investment Canada Act' from Chapter 31. Additionally, USMCA includes more complex enforcement provisions for some of its chapters, including the Environment and Labor Chapters. This InFocus provides an overview of USMCA's Chapter 31 process."
CRS In Focus, IF11399
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/