When Green and Blue Collide: The Relative Superiority Theory and Law Enforcement Incidents [open pdf - 984KB]
From the Thesis Abstract: "The past three decades have seen a significant increase in suspects using weapons, which had not been readily available to the public, and which are more lethal. When suspects are better armed and more skilled with their weapons and tactics than officers, law enforcement's disparity of superiority leads to death and injury. For example, on October 1, 2017, the Las Vegas Massacre resulted in 58 people killed and more than 850 people injured. The entire incident lasted 10 minutes with the suspect firing more than 1,200 rounds before committing suicide. Retired Admiral William McRaven developed the relative superiority theory and the six principles of special operations. The theory's basis is the need for operators to achieve superiority at a specific place and time by virtue of surprise, speed, and violence of action. This thesis analyzed case studies from the North Hollywood Shootout and the 2009 Pittsburgh officer-involved shooting. The relative superiority theory was applied to each case study and identified successes and failures of law enforcement's response to the incident. The analysis and conclusions support the application of relative superiority theory to future critical law enforcement incidents during which officers may be outgunned or are already in an inferior position."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: https://calhoun.nps.edu/