There Are No Monsters in the Closet: Why Fire Departments Are Not Implementing Best Concepts for Active Assailant Incidents [open pdf - 806KB]
From the Thesis Abstract: "Despite literature that recommends fire departments in the United States implement best concepts to more rapidly access victims during active assailant incidents, the adoption of such concepts languishes. As the number of active assailant incidents in this country increases, fire fighters will be increasingly called to respond to incidents involving active shooters, vehicle ramming, and fire used as a weapon, regardless of policy implementation. For this thesis, representatives of seventeen fire departments across the country were asked to describe challenges and facilitators of success when developing or implementing recommended best concepts. When describing challenges, the representatives pointed to the tradition-bound culture of the fire service, lack of senior leadership support, lack of trust between fire and law enforcement agencies, and the logistics of training all personnel. Factors that facilitate best practices include the ability to secure funding for ballistic protection equipment and training, preexisting relationships between fire and law enforcement agencies, joint fire-police training exercises, and the availability of best concepts. Because the resources available for fire departments around the United States vary, a one-size-fits-all approach to best concepts is difficult to implement. However, the recommendations provided in this thesis can help all fire departments adapt best concepts for active assailant incidents to encourage implementation."
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: https://calhoun.nps.edu/