From the Introduction: "Understanding storm-induced coastal change well enough to forecast changes requires knowledge of the physical processes associated with storms and the geomorphology of the affected coastline. [...] The morphology of coastal features, particularly the primary sand-dune elevation, beach width, and slope, are compared to the storm-elevated waves and water levels, which allows researchers to define the vulnerability of these features during a storm event. The three critical elements of this work are (1) the forecast of potential coastal-change effects for emergency planning, (2) the use of direct observations of coastal change to determine the accuracy of the forecast, and (3) update the coastal elevations (for example, the post-storm dune elevations) for future storm forecasts. Immediately after Hurricane Matthew made landfall, Federal agencies responded with a large-scale data collection effort that included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents USGS [U.S. Geological Survey] efforts to assess the effects of Hurricane Matthew along the Atlantic coast. Qualitative and quantitative observations of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline, beaches, and dunes are presented for the region most heavily affected by the storm."
Open-File Report 2019-1095
U.S. Geological Survey: https://www.usgs.gov/