Major Coral Reefs of Maui Nui, Hawai'i--Distribution, Physical Characteristics, Oceanographic Controls, and Environmental Threats [open pdf - 30MB]
From the Executive Summary: "Coral reefs are widely recognized as critical to Hawaiʻi's economy, food resources, and protection from damaging storm waves. Yet overfishing, land-based pollution, and climate change are threatening the health and sustainability of those reefs, and accordingly, both the Federal and State governments have called for protection and effective management. In 2000, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force stated that 20 percent of coral reefs should be protected by 2010. In 2016, the Governor of Hawaiʻi committed to effective management of 30 percent of Hawaiian coastal habitats by 2030 to protect coral reefs. At present, the amount of coral protected in the main Hawaiian Islands is less than 1 percent. Most of the large, highly diverse coral reef tracts in the main Hawaiian Islands surround the four islands of Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe, collectively known as Maui Nui. This report provides fundamental information on the location, extent, coral cover, threats, and connectivity of these major coral reef tracts in Maui Nui essential for identifying areas for management and protection."
Open-File Report 2019-1019
U.S. Geological Survey: https://www.usgs.gov/