From the Document: "Media coverage of fires in the Brazilian Amazon forest is widespread. According to stakeholders, this media coverage is largely due to an increase in fire events and deforestation rates in the region this year compared to the past years, as well as statements made by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro indicating his intent to pursue development in the region. [...] The Amazon is estimated to contain one-half of all global terrestrial carbon in tropical forests and consists of approximately 40% of all remaining tropical rainforests, according to scientific studies. The fate of the Amazon is a concern for many because of the biodiversity it hosts, its role in the global carbon cycle, and its effect on regional climate. Some scientists claim that 20%-25% deforestation in the Amazon can cause it to shift to a nonforest ecosystem, exacerbating the concerns above."
CRS In Focus, IF11306
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/