Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the Absence of a Budget Resolution [Updated April 21, 2021] [open pdf - 1MB]
From the Summary: "The budget resolution reflects an agreement between the House and Senate on a budgetary plan for the upcoming fiscal year. Once agreed to by both chambers in the exact same form, the budget resolution creates parameters that may be enforced by (1) points of order and (2) using the budget reconciliation process. [...] Since the creation of the budget resolution, there have been 11 years in which Congress did not come to agreement on a budget resolution. In each of those years, one or both chambers employed at least one deeming resolution to serve as a substitute for a budget resolution. While referred to as deeming resolutions, such mechanisms are not formally defined and have no specifically prescribed content. Instead, they represent the House and Senate, often separately, engaging legislative procedures to deal with enforcement issues on an ad hoc basis. As described below, the mechanisms can vary significantly in content and timing. This report covers the use of deeming resolutions pertaining to fiscal years for which the House and Senate did not agree on a budget resolution."
CRS Report for Congress, R44296
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/