From the Introduction: "Disasters can cause loss of life, damage buildings and infrastructure, and have devastating consequences for a Tribe's economic, social, and environmental well-being. Hazard mitigation reduces disaster damage and is defined as sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to life and property from natural hazards. Mitigation is most effective when implemented under a comprehensive, long-term mitigation plan that is developed before a disaster. Tribal governments engage in hazard mitigation planning to identify risks and vulnerabilities associated with natural disasters and to develop long-term strategies for protecting communities from future hazard events. A FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plan is required for receiving certain types of non-emergency disaster assistance, including funding for Hazard Mitigation Assistance projects and Public Assistance permanent work (Categories C-G) for Tribal governments applying directly to FEMA for assistance. Tribal hazard mitigation plans are approved for 5-year periods and must be updated to maintain grant eligibility."