NPV--The National Popular Vote Initiative: Proposing Direct Election of the President Through an Interstate Compact [April 25, 2019] [open pdf - 570KB]
From the Document: "NPV's [National Popular Vote] origins can be traced to the 2000 presidential election. In that contest, Republican nominee George W. Bush won the presidency with a majority of 271 electoral votes to his Democratic opponent Al Gore Jr.'s 266, but Gore received 537,209 more popular votes nationwide than his opponent. This outcome, sometimes referred to as an electoral college 'misfire,' particularly by opponents of the system, occurred because (1) the Constitution requires a majority of electoral votes, not popular votes, to win; and (2) most states award electoral votes on a 'winner-take-all' basis--the popular vote winner takes all the state's electoral votes, while none are allocated to the runner-up. It is therefore possible to win the presidency by winning in states that control an electoral vote majority, while the opposing candidate wins more popular votes nationwide, but fewer votes in the electoral college."
CRS In Focus, IF11191
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/