From the Document: "The island of Cyprus is located in the Eastern Mediterranean, 65 miles off the southern coast of Turkey. After gaining independence from Great Britain in 1960, Cyprus's success as a politically stable, united republic began to unravel in 1963, as relations between the Greek Cypriot majority and the Turkish Cypriots deteriorated. In 1964, the Turkish Cypriots, objecting to revisions made to the constitution by the majority, withdrew from most national institutions and began to administer their own affairs. Sporadic, and sometimes intense, intercommunal violence prompted the United Nations Security Council to order a U.N. peacekeeping force to the island. In 1974, a coup against the Greek Cypriot government, intended to unify Cyprus with Greece, led to the deployment of Turkish military forces to northern Cyprus. Since then, the island has been politically and physically divided; the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus (Republic) governs about two-thirds of the island, and the Turkish Cypriots administer an area in the northern third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared their independence and established the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). The TRNC is recognized only by Turkey."
CRS In Focus, IF10749
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/