United States Responses to Excessive National Maritime Claims   [open pdf - 6MB]

"The purpose of this study is to publicize efforts undertaken by the United States Government to preserve and enhance navigation freedoms worldwide. Particularly, this study will focus on the U.S. Freedom of Navigation (FON) Program, begun in 1979 and designed to be a peaceful exercise of the rights and freedoms of navigation and overflight recognized under international law. [...] Under the FON Program the United States undertakes diplomatic action at several levels to preserve its rights under international law. It conducts bilateral consultations with many states stressing the need for and obligation of all states to adhere to customary international law, as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention). When appropriate, the United States delivers formal diplomatic protests addressing specific maritime claims that are inconsistent with international law. Since 1948, the United States has filed more than 140 such protests, including more than 110 since the FON Program began. Portions of these notes are reprinted, or cited, in this study. Operations by U.S. naval and air forces designed to emphasize internationally recognized navigational rights and freedoms complement U.S. diplomatic efforts. These assertions of rights and freedoms tangibly exhibit U.S. determination not to acquiesce in excessive claims to maritime jurisdiction by other States."

Public Domain
Retrieved From:
United States Department of State: http://www.state.gov
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Limits in the Seas No.112
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