"Sanctions are considered by many to be a central element of U.S. policy to counter Russian malign behavior, including Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2014, election interference and cyberattacks, human rights abuses, illicit trade with North Korea, support to the government of Syria, and use of a chemical weapon. The United States also employs sanctions in an effort to deter further objectionable activities by Russia (e.g., expanding the war in Ukraine or launching new attacks in neighboring countries). Most Members of Congress support a robust use of sanctions amid concerns about Russia's international behavior and geostrategic intentions. Most Russia-related sanctions implemented by the United States have been levied in response to Russia's 2014 invasion of Ukraine. These sanctions are based on national emergency authorities granted the office of the President in the National Emergencies Act (NEA; P.L. 94-412; 50 U.S.C. 1621) and International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA; P.L. 95-223; 50 U.S.C. 1701) and were exercised by President Barack Obama in 2014 in a series of executive orders (EOs 13660, 13661, 13662, and 13685). The Obama and Trump Administrations have used these EOs to impose sanctions on approximately 650 Russian individuals and entities."
CRS Report for Congress, R45415
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/