First Responder's Toolbox: Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED): Preparedness, Recognition, and Response [open pdf - 13MB]
"Terrorists may pursue efforts to use VBIEDs [Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device] to conduct mass-casualty attacks in the Homeland. We base this assessment on interest communicated via online platforms and in terrorist publications, as well as on previous VBIED-related incidents and attacks. VBIEDs are typically constructed using common vehicles found locally, making them inconspicuous and potentially difficult to detect just by observation. VBIEDs have been used effectively overseas, and previous attacks serve as examples of how they might be employed in the West. This product seeks to increase VBIED awareness among first responders to aid in preparedness, recognition, and response."
Office of the Director of National Intelligence: https://www.dni.gov/