NIH Medical Research Program Directed Against Chemical Threats: 2017 Report on Research Progress and Future Directions [open pdf - 474KB]
"The general health threat posed by chemical agents has created numerous challenges for many departments and agencies across the U.S. government. Unlike infectious diseases and radiological and nuclear exposures, where a latent period may allow for prophylactic measures to be instituted prior to the manifestation of clinical symptoms, injuries from chemical exposures can occur rapidly with immediate casualties and fatalities. Many of these toxic chemicals or their precursors may be easily procured or manufactured undetected. Some of these chemicals do not even require specialized scientific expertise or knowledge for their synthesis and use. In addition, the sheer number and variety of chemicals that pose a health risk to civilians is especially daunting. [...] It is impractical to develop specific medical countermeasures (MCMs) against every dangerous chemical available, so a prioritization system is necessary to focus MCM research and development efforts. As such, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) was tasked with analyzing and prioritizing chemicals that have been deemed to be threats to civilians. In support of this prioritization effort, CSAC developed the Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) programs, which use probabilistic risk assessments to quantify and prioritize chemical risk. [...] The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of NIH's [National Institutes of Health] chemical MCM research and early development program between fiscal years 2011 and 2017 and offer insight into future directions."
U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/