Fake News, (Dis)information and Principle of Non-Intervention: Scope, Limits and Possible Responses to Cyber Election Interference in Times of Competition [open pdf - 336KB]
From the Abstract: "In the era of asymmetrical conflicts, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) play an essential role due to their importance in the manipulation and conditioning of public opinion. Several threats are linked to the use of ICT but, in terms of inter-state strategic competition, one of the main dangers is represented by so-called 'cyber election interference', i.e. cyber election meddling activities carried out by foreign States to influence the electorate of a target State through the diffusion of 'fake news' or 'alternative truths', principally via the media and social networks (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.). The aim of this paper is to clarify whether and when this kind of interference constitutes a breach of international obligations, in particular of the principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of a State, and also to envisage possible lawful responses under international law for States targeted by said interference."
Cyber Defense Review: http://cyberdefensereview.army.mil/
2018 International Conference on Cyber Conflict U.S. (CyCon U.S.). Washington DC. 14-15 Nov 2018.