Reported Investments in Earthquake Mitigation Top $73 to $80 Billion in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, Since the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake [open pdf - 2MB]
"The damaging 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes caused a considerable number of fatalities and economic losses in the San Francisco Bay Area and the Los Angeles region, respectively. In both earthquakes, elevated freeways collapsed, hospitals and unreinforced masonry buildings were damaged, and some multistory buildings having weak first floors (soft-story buildings) collapsed. A span of the eastern section of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge collapsed during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The earthquake hazard in the San Francisco Bay Area remains high. The most recent earthquake forecast for the San Francisco Bay Area is a 72 percent likelihood of a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years (Aagaard and others, 2016). The damaging 2014 South Napa earthquake was a recent reminder of the ongoing hazard posed by earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area (Brocher and others, 2015). As a result of this and prior earthquake forecasts by the U.S. Geological Survey, and the losses sustained in the 1989 earthquake, government agencies as well as groups in the private and nonprofit sectors have invested in more than 700 structural retrofits and replacements to older structures, motivated by desire to mitigate the impacts of future earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area and to improve the resiliency of the Bay Area community. Many of these are public investments that were supported by the electorate. The purpose of this report is to provide a compilation of structural retrofits and replacements of older buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area that have either been completed since 1989 or that are in progress as of October 2018. For the purposes of this report, all or parts of nine Bay Area counties were included: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma. Santa Cruz County was not included. The compilation of 700 investments is presented as a table in the appendix. We consider this table as version 1, as we urge that those familiar with additional projects contact the report authors with information to update the table. In total, we have identified $73 to $80 billion in investments to retrofit or replace structures to mitigate the impacts of future San Francisco Bay Area earthquakes. These totals represent an average investment of $2.5 to $2.8 billion per year in retrofits and replacement of structures since 1989."
Open-File Report 2018-1168
U.S. Geological Survey: https://www.usgs.gov/