Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-274-1879; Evaluation of Zinc Chloride Smoke Generating Devices International Association of Fire Fighters Washington, D.C. [open pdf - 4MB]
"In March 1985 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) to evaluate the hazard of smoke clouds produced by zinc chloride smoke generating devices. The requestor noted that the devices, advertised as 'medically proven to be non-toxic', had been implicated in a number of training exercises during which participants experienced adverse health effects, including breathing difficulties, chest pains, joint pains, chills, fever, and death. [...] Dense clouds generated by zinc chloride smoke generating devices should be considered hazardous. [...] While a properly operating self-contained breathing apparatus worn by a well-trained individual offers adequate protection against the smoke, even short-term exposure without respiratory protection to the components of the dense smoke cloud presents a health hazard."
HETA # 85-274-1879; Health Evaluation and Technical Assistance Report Number 85-274-1879
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/