From the thesis abstract: "This study assesses the relevance of borders in the 21st century. The author analyses the different approaches of the concept of border throughout history and cultures. Borders occupy different functions with respect to rulers, people and territories. The reality of borders stretches from 'border-line,' to 'border-area,' and to 'frontier,' as no universal definition exists. The sociological study demonstrates the importance of cross border integration in the shaping of borders. By contrast, the modern state and the bordering process have introduced a global set of norms of delineation. Official borders are relative to a specific domain, and do not ensure a definitive consistent norm with respect to population and global trends. Globalization and the main disequilibrium of the 21st century have challenged the normative definition of the 'border-line.' The traditional lines of division have disappeared, and the changing level of openness of borders has become the criteria of analysis. The world oscillates between a borderless and a gated approach. This study concludes the need to redefine a less normative approach of borders with respect to people and local context."
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