Exposure Pathways to High-Consequence Pathogens in the Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems [open pdf - 2MB]
"This report describes a conceptual exposure model based upon a review of the relevant literature for fate and transport elements for pathogens when present in wastewater systems. A screening process is then presented that evaluates emerging pathogens for the presence of two characteristics: (1) the potential to exhibit high-consequence disease transmission characteristics in wastewater systems, and (2) the potential to exhibit viable exposure pathways (VEP) for human receptors who have contact with wastewater systems. The screening process is developed for use with pathogens with varying levels of available data. However, the screening process is designed to be usable with pathogens with limited data, and for the screening process to incorporate quantitative data when it is available. Furthermore, this report assists users on the selection and use of data on surrogate microorganisms in decision-making for elements of the screening process. Lastly, case studies for the EBOV [Ebola virus(es)] and the spore form of 'Bacillus anthracis' are then presented to illustrate use of the screening process to evaluate pathogens and the presence of VEP."
Environmental Protection Agency: https://www.epa.gov